The railway came to Catcliffe in 1900 with the opening of the Sheffield District Railway between Treeton Junction and Beighton Junction. The station was located on the Sheffield District Railway, just over 1 mile (1.6 km) north of its junction with the North Midland Railway line at Treeton Junction.
The line was carried on a 9-arch brick-built viaduct over the Rother Valley. The station was constructed at the northern end of this, near to the village. The station was noted for its bleak and isolated location which earned it the name "Klondyke" from the local population. Both station and platforms were built of wood. The awnings were of the distinctive LD & ECR style. The station was opened on 30 April 1900 and closed on 11 September 1939. It was briefly reopened from 6 October 1946 to 17 March 1947.
Work began locally on the the M1 motorway in 1966 and split Catcliffe from Brinsworth, cutting through the Whiston meadows and running adjacent to Brinsworth Road. In 1974 the Sheffield Parkway was opened running from the afore mentioned meadows to Sheffield City Centre. This had the effect of bisecting the village although a bridge was eventually put up joining Nursery Drive to the western edge of the churchyard.
At one time in the 1980's, the Waverley opencast site was proposed as a potential helicopter landing ground or airport but the scheme failed because the National Coal Board wished to continue mining on the site. Plans for a local airport at Tinsley Park surfaced once more in the late 1980’s. This was met with a mixed reception in Catcliffe as the village would be directly under the flight-path. But in 1997 an airport for STOL aircraft was built on the site which decimated a large part of High Hazel woods. The airport was a short lived affair and eventually closed as a passenger enterprise in 2008. For some time it remained as a base for the Yorkshire Air Ambulance and today serves as a landing option for the South Yorkshire Police helicopter.
Catcliffe has been well supported with bus services over the years. Privatisation of public transport meant a considerable reshuffling of timetables and routes but the services remain good in the main and the village has good connections to nearby towns, villages and shopping outlets.
It can be seen that Catcliffe has an excellent road transport infrastructure with very local links to the national ‘grid’. A long way from the sleepy village described in earlier texts.